ISBN: trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or . NET Application Architecture Guide, 2nd Edition iv. A final PDF is now available for our patterns & practices Application Architecture Guide, second edition. This is our platform playbook for the. Title Microsoft Application Architecture Guide, 2nd Edition: Designing pages; ebook PDF, MB; Language: English; ISBN X; ISBN

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Microsoft® Application Architecture Guide, 2nd Edition (Patterns & Practices) This guide provides design-level guidance for the architecture and design of applications built on the. The completed Application Architecture Guide 2nd Edition is now available on MSDN. Download the final release in PDF on MSDN. Pinney; Ted Neward; Udi Dahan; Microsoft Contributors / Reviewers - Ade Miller;. This guide is available online here in the MSDN Library and will be available in the Fall of as a Microsoft Press book, ISBN#.

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Create a free website or blog at WordPress. Free ebook from Microsoft: Application Architecture , guide , ebook. Like this: Like Loading Establish design and architecture standards for your application; use these standards to perform design and architecture inspections, using a question-driven approach with respect to architecture objectives, infrastructure and organizational constraints, performance, and security goals, to focus your efforts.

Use these guidelines as a starting point toward understanding how to choose an application type, and the key differences between each application type covered in this guide. For example, device resources and performance are key considerations when designing a mobile application; choice of UI design patterns is a key consideration when designing a rich client application; and changes to your UI design and deployment paradigms are key considerations when designing a rich Internet application.

Key considerations when designing a service interface include choosing a pattern for effective decoupling. Key considerations when designing a Web application include layering, as well as the amount of client-side processing to use.

If you want to leverage client resources and support disconnected scenarios, consider a rich client application.

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If you want to provide the application UI over the Web, consider building a Web application. If you want to support advanced graphics and streaming media in a Web-deployed scenario, consider a rich Internet application RIA. If you want to expose a loosely coupled interface to remove clients without a UI, consider building a service.

If you want to support mobile devices over the Internet, consider designing a mobile Web application.

Now Available: Final PDF of the Microsoft Application Architecture Guide, Second Edition

If you want to support mobile devices in which you leverage device resources or need to support partially disconnected scenarios, consider a mobile rich-client application. The design you use on the Web server can vary, based on the type and size of the application you are building. In addition, the interaction between the presentation and business layers should be message-based, which is better suited to the stateless nature of Web application requests.

Design to provide a suitable and usable interface in terms of layout, navigation, choice of controls, and localization.

Extract business rules and other tasks not related to the UI into a separate business layer. Use a message-based interface to communicate with services deployed on separate physical tiers. Avoid tight coupling to objects in other layers by using common interface definitions, abstract base classes, or message-based communication.

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For example, implementing the Dependency Injection and Inversion of Control patterns can provide a shared abstraction between layers. Design your application to run in the browser sandbox. When designing an RIA, consider using a single page that changes dynamically as the user works with the application. Multi-page designs are more complex in an RIA, and require additional considerations such as deep linking and UI screen navigation. Design for usability, such as the ability to pause and navigate to the appropriate point in a workflow without restarting the whole process.

RIA implementations have a small footprint on the client, but require a browser plug-in. Design for scenarios in which the browser plugin is not already installed, including non-interruptive plug-in installation and displaying informative error messages if an installation problem should occur.

Within the service layer, you define interface contracts, classes to translate between the interface and the business layer, and concrete classes that implement the interface. When choosing which device types to support, consider screen size and format, CPU performance characteristics, memory and storage space, development tool and environment support, as well as user requirements and organizational constraints.

Design your caching, state management, and data-access mechanisms with intermittent network connectivity in mind. Use these guidelines as a starting point toward understanding how to think about key functionality that cuts across layers and tiers.

For example, your exception-management strategy should be designed to be consistent across your entire application, and not with just a single layer in mind.

Use exceptions instead of error codes where possible. Do not reveal internal system or application details, such as stack traces, SQL statement fragments, and so on. Ensure that this type of information is not allowed to propagate to the end user, or beyond your current trust boundary. Fail securely in the event of an exception, and make sure that your application denies access and is not left in an insecure state. Use finally blocks to guarantee that resources are cleaned up when exceptions occur; for example, close your database connections in a finally block.

Do not log sensitive or private data such as passwords, which could be compromised. When the exception contains user input in the exception message, ensure that you sanitize and validate it; for example, if you return an HTML error message, you should encode the output to avoid script injection.

This could be a debugging issue, a performance issue, a security issue, a manageability issue, and so on. This is different than logging in that logging is a general approach to pushing information into log files that might need to be audited in the future, versus a targeted approach to get information for a specific problem.

Where you cannot use transactions, implement compensating methods to revert the data store to its previous state. Avoid holding locks for long periods; for example, when using long-running atomic transactions. Consider using compensating locks for long-running transactions. If the chance of a data conflict from concurrent users is low for example, when users are generally adding data or editing different rows , consider using optimistic locking during data access.

If the chance of a data conflict from concurrent users is high for example, when users are likely to be editing the same rows , consider using pessimistic locking during data access.

If transactions take a long time to complete, consider using asynchronous transactions that call back to the client when complete. NET, or System. T-SQL transactions are most efficient for server-controlled transactions on a single data store.

Keep transactions as short as possible, consider your isolation level, and keep read operations to a minimum inside a transaction. Use these guidelines as a starting point toward understanding key concerns, such as how to validate input on the client and on the server, and how to choose between the Model-View-Controller MVC and Model-ViewPresenter MVP patterns.

Constrain, reject, and sanitize your input because it is easier to validate data for known valid types, patterns, and ranges than it is to validate data by looking for known bad characters. Validate data for type, length, format, and range. Consider using regular expressions for validating the inputs.

For an improved user experience, consider using client-side validation, but always perform validation at the server as well. Encode your output. You must also understand how the three parts of the triad communicate with each other to process requests from user input.

The Model represents data, and the View is the UI, which displays the data to the user and contains controls for the user to interact with the data and the application. The Controller is responsible for handling requests, initializing the Model and choosing the appropriate View. In the Passive Model pattern, changes to the Model are only captured when the Controller processes a request.

One of the limitations with this pattern is that, because the controller is responsible for intercepting and handling requests, you lose capabilities associated with the View such as the ability to handle control events and the use of viewstate in ASP.

Similar to the controller in MVC, the Presenter is responsible for processing requests and initializing the model. The main advantage of using this pattern over MVC is that, because the view handles requests, you also have support for control events and the ability to maintain the state of controls in the view. There are two main variations on this pattern, Passive View and Supervising Controller. With Passive View, requests are intercepted by the View and passed to the Presenter, and then the Presenter initializes fields in the View through an interface.

This variation completely decouples the view from the Model and provides the highest level of testability. With Supervising Controller, the View passes requests to the Presenter, the Presenter notifies the View when the Model is initialized, and the View accesses the Model directly. This variation is useful when you have a lot of data that needs to be presented in the View, which makes Passive View impractical.

If you are working with content-based applications that have few or no business rules, consider using XML. If you have complex business rules related to the business domain, or if you are designing a rich client where the domain model can be initialized and held in memory, consider using custom Domain Model objects.

If your tables or views in the database represent the business entities used by your application, consider using custom objects. If the data you are consuming is already in XML format, or if you are working with read-only documentbased data, consider using custom XML objects.

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If you have volatile business rules, consider storing them in a separate rules engine. If you want your business rules to be separate from the business data, consider using business process components. If your business processes involve multiple steps with long-running transactions, consider using business workflow components. A well-designed business component exposes data and functionality based on how the data is used, and abstracts the underlying data store and service.

Do not mix unrelated functionality within a business component; for example, do not mix data access logic and business logic within the same component. Consider designing consistent input and output data formats for business components. Avoid including business logic in a service interface in order to improve reusability and maintainability and reduce duplication of code.

Consider using standard protocols such as the SOAP as the communication medium to ensure maximum compatibility with a range of clients. The data access logic layer provides a level of abstraction from the underlying data store. A well-designed data access layer exposes data and functionality based on how the data is used, and abstracts the underlying data store complexity.

Do not arbitrarily map objects to tables and columns, and avoid deep object hierarchies. For example, if you want to display a subset of data, and your design retrieves an entire object graph instead of the necessary portions, there is unnecessary object creation overhead.

Evaluate the data you need and how you want to use the data against your underlying data store. Connections are an expensive and scarce resource, which should be shared between callers by using connection pooling.The mechanism you choose depends on the deployment scenarios your application must support. Opening a connection for each caller limits scalability. Free ebook from Microsoft: However, do not make transactions so short that access to the database becomes too chatty.

However, remember that WPF controls tend to work best on higher-powered client machines. Avoid tight coupling to objects in other layers by using common interface definitions, abstract base classes, or message-based communication. Key considerations when designing a service interface include choosing a pattern for effective decoupling.

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